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GDPR 101: Understanding Compliance Requirements for UK and EU Businesses



The digital revolution has exponentially expanded the possibilities for businesses across the globe, but with great potential comes great responsibility. Handling data correctly has become a fundamental requirement for organisations, as they now face stringent legal and ethical considerations regarding their use of personal data. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is an integral part of this digital landscape, especially for businesses in the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU). This guide will provide a clear overview of the GDPR and discuss some practical steps your business can take to ensure compliance.

Understanding GDPR

Implemented in May 2018, the GDPR was designed to standardise data protection laws across the EU, giving citizens better control over their personal data. In the UK, the GDPR was incorporated into law by the Data Protection Act 2018, and it continues to apply post-Brexit. Businesses that fail to comply face severe financial penalties, with fines potentially reaching up to €20 million or 4% of annual global turnover, whichever is higher.

The Scope of GDPR

The GDPR applies to all businesses and organisations established in the EU, including those in the UK, regardless of where they process personal data. This means that even if your business is based in the UK but serves customers in the EU, you must still comply with the GDPR. 

Data Controllers, Processors and Subjects

To grasp the GDPR, it’s crucial to understand three key roles:

  1. Data Controllers: These are the entities that determine the purposes and means of processing personal data. If you’re collecting personal data for your business, you’re a data controller.
  2. Data Processors: These entities process personal data on behalf of the controller. This could include a third-party service, like a marketing agency you’ve hired.
  3. Data Subjects: These are the individuals whose personal data is being collected. This could be your customers, employees, or website visitors.

GDPR Principles

The GDPR is underpinned by seven key principles, which act as the backbone for personal data protection. They include:

  1. Lawfulness, fairness and transparency: Personal data must be processed lawfully, fairly, and in a transparent manner.
  2. Purpose limitation: Personal data can only be collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes.
  3. Data minimisation: The collection of personal data should be adequate, relevant, and limited to what’s necessary.
  4. Accuracy: Personal data must be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date.
  5. Storage limitation: Personal data should be kept no longer than necessary.
  6. Integrity and confidentiality: Personal data should be processed securely, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing.
  7. Accountability: The data controller is responsible for demonstrating compliance with the GDPR.

Compliance Steps for Businesses

Ensuring GDPR compliance can seem overwhelming, but here are a few key steps that businesses can take:

  1. Awareness: Ensure that decision-makers and key personnel in your organisation are aware of the GDPR, its implications, and your compliance requirements.
  2. Document Your Data: Understand what personal data you hold, where it came from, and who you share it with. Conduct a data audit if necessary.
  3. Review Your Privacy Notices: Under the GDPR, you must provide clear information about how you use personal data. Make sure your privacy policies and notices are up-to-date and GDPR-compliant.
  4. Implement Data Protection Measures: Incorporate data protection measures into your business processes, such as secure data storage and deletion practices. Consider appointing a Data Protection Officer if required.
  5. Prepare for Data Subject Access Requests: Make sure you have procedures in place to handle requests from data subjects about their data.
  6. Understand Data Breach Procedures: Know what constitutes a data breach, how to detect it, and how to report it.


In the era of data-driven decisions, understanding and complying with the GDPR is essential for all businesses operating within the UK and the EU. While the process might seem complex, adopting a step-by-step approach, understanding the principles of GDPR and using resources for guidance can ease your path to compliance. Remember, data protection is not just about avoiding penalties – it’s about earning and maintaining the trust of your customers and the public.

Achieving consistent compliance across your organisation relies on ensuring all employees understand the requirements and how they apply to them. Organisations need to build a culture that values best practices and provides employees the tools to do this. It is not enough to just disseminate knowledge and hope it is taken on board. It is rooted in effective training, organisational processes, corporate culture and above all, human behaviour.

Having worked with a range of large and complex organisations, BestatDigital ( understands how these factors play an important role in the way knowledge is absorbed and embedded. The independent behavioural design agency works with organisations to understand their barriers to compliance and then develops bespoke learning and behaviour change programs to overcome these. They utilise behavioural science principles within their programs and communications to deliver long-term improvements.

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